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Retrieved December 19, Oregon State University. November 7, Retrieved March 30, Penguin Publishing Group. Archived PDF from the original on January 29, The high 25 OH D concentrations, and relatively high vitamin D requirements of apes and monkeys are understandable in light of their biology—their body surface area relative to mass is generally greater than for humans, and they are inveterate groomers, consuming by mouth the vitamin D generated from the oils secreted by skin into fur.
Although much of the vitamin D produced within human skin is absorbed directly, birds and furbearing animals acquire most of their vitamin D orally, as they groom themselves Bicknell and Prescott, ; Carpenter and Zhao, Vitamin D is generated from the oily secretions of skin into fur.
The oral consumption of UV-exposed dermal excretion is the way many animals acquire the "nutrient," vitamin D.
Although Fraser has argued that dermal absorption of vitamin D may be more natural, what we know from animals indicates that oral consumption is equally physiological.
Since vitamin D can be extracted from UV-exposed human sweat and skin secretions Bicknell and Prescott, , it is also reasonable to think that early humans obtained some of their vitamin D by mouth as well, by licking the skin.
Bibcode : PNAS.. Vitamin D. Academic Press. Recommendations ". European Journal of Biochemistry. A metabolite of vitamin D3 effective on intestine".
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October 21, Cancer Metastasis Reviews. Vitamins A Ascorbic acid Dehydroascorbic acid. Oxytocin Vasopressin. Thyroid hormones T 3 T 4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis.
Testosterone AMH Inhibin. Glucagon Insulin Amylin Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide. Gastrin Ghrelin. Enteroglucagon Peptide YY.
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Rickets typically appears between 3 and 18 months of age. Maternal vitamin D deficiency may cause overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth.
Although rickets and osteomalacia are now rare in the UK , outbreaks have happened in some immigrant communities in which osteomalacia sufferers included women with seemingly adequate daylight outdoor exposure wearing Western clothing.
Vitamin D deficiency remains the main cause of rickets among young infants in most countries because breast milk is low in vitamin D and social customs and climatic conditions can prevent adequate sun exposure.
In sunny countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, and Bangladesh, where rickets occurs among older toddlers and children, it has been attributed to low dietary calcium intakes, which are characteristic of cereal-based diets with limited access to dairy products.
Osteomalacia is a disease in adults that results from vitamin D deficiency. Characteristics of this disease are softening of the bones, leading to bending of the spine, bowing of the legs, proximal muscle weakness, bone fragility, and increased risk for fractures.
Dark-skinned people living in temperate climates have been shown to have low vitamin D levels but the significance of this is not certain.
Supplementation with vitamin D is a reliable method for preventing or treating rickets. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal health are uncertain.
A United States Institute of Medicine IOM report states: "Outcomes related to cancer , cardiovascular disease and hypertension , and diabetes and metabolic syndrome, falls and physical performance, immune functioning and autoimmune disorders , infections, neuropsychological functioning, and preeclampsia could not be linked reliably with calcium or vitamin D intake and were often conflicting.
Research on vitamin D supplements, including large-scale clinical trials, is continuing. Vitamin D 3 supplementation has been tentatively found to lead to a reduced risk of death in the elderly,   but the effect has not been deemed pronounced, or certain enough, to make taking supplements recommendable.
In general, no good evidence supports the commonly held belief that vitamin D supplements can help prevent osteoporosis.
Because it found mounting evidence for a benefit to bone health, though it had not found good evidence of other benefits, the US Food and Drug Administration FDA has required manufacturers to declare the amount of vitamin D on nutrition facts labels , as "nutrients of public health significance", since May Reviews have described the evidence as being "inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient to inform nutritional requirements"  and "not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions".
Another review concluded that vitamin D 3 may decrease the risk of death from cancer one fewer death in people treated over 5 years , but concerns with the quality of the data were noted.
Taking vitamin D supplements does not meaningfully reduce the risk of stroke , cerebrovascular disease , cardial infarction , or ischemic heart disease.
In general, vitamin D functions to activate the innate and dampen the adaptive immune systems. Supplementation slightly decreases the risk and severity of acute respiratory tract infections , and also the exacerbation of asthma.
The COVID pandemic raised concerns that vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for respiratory infection,     but there is only preliminary evidence of a direct association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID infection.
According to ClinicalTrials. Although tentative data link low levels of vitamin D to asthma , evidence to support a beneficial effect on asthmatics from supplementation is inconclusive.
Low levels of vitamin D are associated with two major forms of human inflammatory bowel disease IBD : Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Diabetes -- A systematic review of concluded that the available studies show no evidence of vitamin D3 supplementation having an effect on glucose homeostasis or diabetes prevention.
Depression -- Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms have generally been of low quality and show no overall effect, although subgroup analysis showed supplementation for participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms or depressive disorder had a moderate effect.
Cognition and dementia -- A systematic review of clinical studies found an association between low vitamin D levels with cognitive impairment and a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
However, lower vitamin D concentrations are also associated with poor nutrition and spending less time outdoors. Therefore, alternative explanations for the increase in cognitive impairment exist and hence a direct causal relationship between vitamin D levels and cognition could not be established.
Pregnancy -- Low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy are associated with gestational diabetes , pre-eclampsia , and small for gestational age infants.
Weight loss -- Though hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation may be an effective treatment for obesity apart from calorie restriction , one systematic review found no association of supplementation with body weight or fat mass.
Governmental regulatory agencies stipulate for the food and dietary supplement industries certain health claims as allowable as statements on packaging.
European Food Safety Authority. Various institutions have proposed different recommendations for the amount of daily intake of vitamin D.
These vary according to precise definition, age, pregnancy or lactation, and the extent assumptions are made regarding skin synthesis of vitamin D.
The dietary reference intake for vitamin D issued in by the Institute of Medicine IoM renamed National Academy of Medicine in , superseded previous recommendations which were expressed in terms of Adequate Intake.
The recommendations were formed assuming the individual has no skin synthesis of vitamin D because of inadequate sun exposure.
The reference intake for vitamin D refers to total intake from food, beverages and supplements, and assumes that calcium requirements are being met.
For U. Health Canada published recommended dietary allowances RDA and tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin D in  based on the Institute of Medicine report.
Australia and New Zealand published nutrient reference values including guidelines for dietary vitamin D intake in The European Food Safety Authority EFSA in  reviewed the current evidence, finding the relationship between serum 25 OH D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes is widely variable.
The UK National Health Service recommends babies and young children aged six months to five years, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and sun-deprived elderly people should take daily vitamin supplements to ensure sufficient vitamin D intake.
Non-government organisations in Europe have made their own recommendations. Although vitamin D is not present naturally in most foods,   it is commonly added as a fortification in manufactured foods.
In some countries, staple foods are artificially fortified with vitamin D. In general, vitamin D 2 is found in fungi and vitamin D 3 is found in animals.
The vitamin D 2 content in mushrooms and Cladina arbuscula , a lichen, increase with exposure to ultraviolet light.
Manufactured foods fortified with vitamin D include some fruit juices and fruit juice drinks, meal replacement energy bars , soy protein -based beverages, certain cheese and cheese products, flour products, infant formulas , many breakfast cereals , and milk.
While some studies have found that vitamin D 3 raises 25 OH D blood levels faster and remains active in the body longer,   others contend that vitamin D 2 sources are equally bioavailable and effective as D 3 for raising and sustaining 25 OH D.
Vitamin D content in typical foods is reduced variably by cooking. Recommendations on recommended 25 OH D serum levels vary across authorities, and vary based on factors like age.
The dietary reference intakes for vitamin D are chosen with a margin of safety and 'overshoot' the targeted serum value to ensure the specified levels of intake achieve the desired serum 25 OH D levels in almost all persons.
No contributions to serum 25 OH D level are assumed from sun exposure and the recommendations are fully applicable to people with dark skin or negligible exposure to sunlight.
Vitamin D toxicity is rare. Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia is caused by a mutation of the CYP24A1 gene, leading to a reduction in the degradation of vitamin D.
Infants suffering from such a mutation have an increased sensitivity to vitamin D and in case of additional intake a risk of hypercalcaemia.
Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult a doctor before taking a vitamin D supplement. One thousand micrograms per day in infants has produced toxicity within one month.
Calcitriol itself is auto-regulated in a negative feedback cycle, and is also affected by parathyroid hormone , fibroblast growth factor 23 , cytokines , calcium, and phosphate.
Vitamin D overdose causes hypercalcemia, which is a strong indication of vitamin D toxicity — this can be noted with an increase in urination and thirst.
If hypercalcemia is not treated, it results in excess deposits of calcium in soft tissues and organs such as the kidneys, liver, and heart, resulting in pain and organ damage.
The main symptoms of vitamin D overdose which are those of hypercalcemia including anorexia , nausea, and vomiting. These may be followed by polyuria , polydipsia , weakness, insomnia, nervousness, pruritus and ultimately kidney failure.
Furthermore, proteinuria , urinary casts , azotemia , and metastatic calcification especially in the kidneys may develop.
Vitamin D toxicity is treated by discontinuing vitamin D supplementation and restricting calcium intake. Kidney damage may be irreversible.
Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not normally cause vitamin D toxicity.
The concentrations of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium , and any further vitamin D produced is degraded.
Synthesis of vitamin D in nature is dependent on the presence of UV radiation and subsequent activation in the liver and in the kidneys.
Many animals synthesize vitamin D 3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol , and many fungi synthesize vitamin D 2 from ergosterol.
Click on icon in lower right corner to open. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.
The transformation that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D 3 occurs in two steps. The process is faster in white button mushrooms.
Vitamin D 3 is produced photochemically from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin of most vertebrate animals, including humans.
Exposure to light through windows is insufficient because glass almost completely blocks UVB light. The darker the skin, and the weaker the sunlight, the more minutes of exposure are needed.
Vitamin-D overdose is impossible from UV exposure: the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is created.
Sunscreen absorbs or reflects ultraviolet light and prevents much of it from reaching the skin. The skin consists of two primary layers: the inner layer called the dermis , composed largely of connective tissue , and the outer, thinner epidermis.
Vitamin D is produced in the keratinocytes  of two innermost strata, the stratum basale and stratum spinosum.
Vitamin D can be synthesized only by a photochemical process. Primitive vertebrates in the ocean could absorb calcium from the ocean into their skeletons and eat plankton rich in vitamin D.
Land vertebrates required another source of vitamin D other than plants for their calcified skeletons. They had to either ingest it or be exposed to sunlight to photosynthesize it in their skin.
In birds and fur-bearing mammals, fur or feathers block UV rays from reaching the skin. Instead, vitamin D is created from oily secretions of the skin deposited onto the feathers or fur, and is obtained orally during grooming.
Vitamin D 3 cholecalciferol is produced industrially by exposing 7-dehydrocholesterol to UVB light, followed by purification.
Vitamin D 2 ergocalciferol is produced in a similar way using ergosterol from yeast or mushrooms as a starting material.
Vitamin D is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcifediol. Circulating calcifediol may then be converted into calcitriol , the biologically active form of vitamin D, in the kidneys.
Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver at position 25 upper right of the molecule to form hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol or 25 OH D.
The conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxyvitamin D 3 1-alpha-hydroxylase , which is the product of the CYP27B1 human gene.
The activity of CYP27B1 is increased by parathyroid hormone , and also by low calcium or phosphate.
Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol is released into the circulation. By binding to vitamin D-binding protein, calcitriol is transported throughout the body, including to the classical target organs of intestine, kidney and bone.
In addition to the kidneys, calcitriol is also synthesized by certain other cells including monocyte - macrophages in the immune system.
When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine , modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system.
The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 hydroxylase , forming secalciferol and calcitetrol, respectively.
American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in  discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A".
British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease.
In , Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named.
In ,  it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced now known as D 3.
Alfred Fabian Hess stated: "Light equals vitamin D. A meeting took place with J. Haldane , J. Bernal , and Dorothy Crowfoot to discuss possible structures, which contributed to bringing a team together.
X-ray crystallography demonstrated the sterol molecules were flat, not as proposed by the German team led by Windaus. In , Otto Rosenheim and Harold King published a paper putting forward structures for sterols and bile acids which found immediate acceptance.
In the s, Windaus clarified further the chemical structure of vitamin D. In , American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials.
A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk.
By the expiration of his patent in , rickets had been all but eliminated in the US. In , after studying nuclear fragments of intestinal cells, a specific binding protein for vitamin D called the vitamin D receptor was identified by Mark Haussler and Tony Norman.
In the liver, vitamin D was found to be converted to calcifediol. Calcifediol is then converted by the kidneys to calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D.
The vitamin D metabolites, calcifediol and calcitriol, were identified by competing teams led by Michael F. They state further: "however, most evidence for these roles comes from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies, not the randomized clinical trials considered to be more definitive.
Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the available evidence for public health and patient care will be debated".
Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population.
Apart from VDR activation, various alternative mechanisms of action are under study, such as inhibition of signal transduction by hedgehog , a hormone involved in morphogenesis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of chemical compounds. For other uses, see Vitamin D disambiguation.
This article is about the family of vitamers. For individual forms, see ergocalciferol , cholecalciferol , vitamin D4 , and vitamin D5.
Main article: Vitamin D deficiency. Main article: Rickets. Main articles: Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: hypervitaminosis D. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
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